4G LTE, also referred to as E-UTRAN, is the radio access component of the Evolved Packet System (EPS) - a mobile network standard that is purely based on IP. It was introduced in 3GPP Rel. 8 as an upgrade to the 3G UMTS technology and shares similarities with it, including harmonized frequency bands, but also offers significant technological advancements. OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) forms the basis of LTE technology and can achieve very high data rates when combined with higher order modulation (up to 256QAM), large bandwidths (up to 100 MHz aggregate), and spatial multiplexing (MIMO) techniques. LTE is designed to operate on various frequency bands, known as E-UTRA operating bands, that currently range from 450 MHz up to 6 GHz. The available bandwidths are flexible, starting from 0.2 MHz and going up to 20 MHz. Additionally, LTE supports both time division duplex technology (TDD) and frequency division duplex (FDD).
5G NSA (Non-Standalone) network is a type of 5G network architecture that relies on the existing 4G LTE network infrastructure to provide initial connectivity and access to 5G services. In NSA, 5G is deployed as an add-on to the existing 4G LTE network, allowing for faster data speeds, reduced latency, and improved network capacity. This network architecture allows for a faster rollout of 5G technology while minimizing the cost and time required for deployment. However, it may not provide the full potential of 5G features and capabilities that are available with a standalone 5G network.
AES-256 (Advanced Encryption Standard 256) is a symmetric encryption algorithm that uses a block cipher to encrypt and decrypt data. It uses a 256-bit key to encrypt and decrypt blocks of data, making it one of the most secure encryption standards currently available. The AES-256 encryption algorithm is widely used in various applications, including data encryption, secure communications, and digital signatures, to ensure data privacy and integrity. It is a standardized algorithm adopted by the US government and is widely used in commercial and military applications.
An Active Intercept System (AIS) is a type of electronic surveillance technology designed to intercept and eavesdrop on communication signals that are being transmitted between electronic devices, such as cell phones or computers. Unlike passive interception systems that simply listen to the signals being transmitted, active intercept systems actively intervene in the communication process by sending signals to disrupt or block the transmission, or by capturing and decoding the content of the transmission. Active intercept systems are typically used by intelligence agencies, law enforcement agencies, and military organizations for surveillance, intelligence gathering, and other security purposes.
In GSM cellular networks, an absolute radio-frequency channel number (ARFCN) is a code that specifies a pair of physical radio carriers used for transmission and reception in a land mobile radio system, one for the uplink signal and one for the downlink signal.
Bluetooth is a wireless communication technology that allows devices to communicate and exchange data over short distances. It uses radio waves in the 2.4 GHz frequency band to establish a secure and reliable connection between two or more Bluetooth-enabled devices, such as smartphones, laptops, headphones, speakers, and other electronic devices. Bluetooth technology is commonly used for file transfers, streaming audio and video, connecting wireless peripherals, and other applications that require wireless communication between devices.
A broadcast control channel (BCCH) is a point to multipoint, unidirectional (downlink) channel used in the Um interface of the GSM cellular standard. The BCCH carries a repeating pattern of system information messages that describe the identity, configuration and available features of the base transceiver station (BTS).
The Base Transceiver Station contains the equipment for transmitting and receiving radio signals (transceivers), antennas, and equipment for encrypting and decrypting communications with the base station controller (BSC).
A company that provides GSM telecommunications services.
In personal communications systems (cellular mobile phone systems) a cell is the geographic area served by a single base station. Cells are arranged so that base-station frequencies can be reused between cells. The area surrounding a cell site. The area in which calls are handled by a particular cell site.
A GSM Cell ID (CID) is a generally unique number used to identify each Base transceiver station (BTS) or sector of a BTS within a Location area code (LAC) if not within a GSM network. In some cases the last digit of CID represents cells' Sector ID. This network parameter is used in so called BCCH manipulation by GSM Interceptors. By changing Cell ID (all other network parameters remains the same - MCC, MNC, LAC) and ARFCN, the system is forcing the cell phones within the area to send registration requests, collecting this way phones identifiers: IMSI, IMEI, classmark, etc.
The transmission and reception equipment, including the base station antenna, that connects a cellular phone to the network.
A Closed User Group (CUG) wireless network is a telecommunications service that allows a specific group of users to communicate exclusively with each other within a designated geographical area. This type of network is often used by organizations, such as businesses, government agencies, or emergency services, to ensure secure and reliable communication among their members. CUG networks can be established using a variety of wireless technologies, such as cellular, satellite, or radio, and are typically secured through encryption and access controls to prevent unauthorized access.
Channel coding is a technique used in communication systems to add redundancy to the transmitted signal, which enables the receiver to detect and correct errors that occur during transmission. The redundancy is added in the form of extra bits, which are generated based on the information being transmitted. The process of adding these extra bits is called encoding, and the resulting encoded signal is transmitted over the communication channel. At the receiver, the encoded signal is decoded, and the original information is recovered using error detection and correction techniques. The goal of channel coding is to improve the reliability and efficiency of communication systems by reducing the error rate and maximizing the use of available bandwidth.
Core Network (UMTS). The Core Network is divided in circuit switched and packet switched domains. Some of the circuit switched elements are Mobile services Switching Centre (MSC), Visitor location register (VLR) and Gateway MSC. Packet switched elements are Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) and Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN). Some network elements, like EIR, HLR, VLR and AUC are shared by both domains. The Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is defined for UMTS core transmission. ATM Adaptation Layer type 2 (AAL2) handles circuit switched connection and packet connection protocol AAL5 is designed for data delivery. The architecture of the Core Network may change when new services and features are introduced. Number Portability DataBase (NPDB) will be used to enable user to change the network while keeping their old phone number. Gateway Location Register (GLR) may be used to optimize the subscriber handling between network boundaries. MSC, VLR and SGSN can merge to become a UMTS MSC
Decibel (dB) is a logarithmic unit of measurement used to express the ratio between two values of a physical quantity, such as power, voltage, or sound intensity. It is defined as one-tenth of a bel, which is a unit named after Alexander Graham Bell, the inventor of the telephone. In the context of sound, the decibel is often used to express the relative loudness of sounds. Since human hearing is sensitive to a very wide range of sound intensities, the decibel scale is logarithmic, which means that a difference of 10 dB corresponds to a tenfold increase (or decrease) in sound intensity. For example, a sound that is 10 times more intense than another sound is said to be 10 dB louder. The decibel scale is commonly used in audio engineering, telecommunications, and other fields where precise measurements of sound or signal levels are required.
dBi is a unit of measurement used to express the gain of an antenna compared to an isotropic radiator, which is an imaginary, theoretical antenna that radiates equally in all directions. When an antenna's gain is expressed in dBi, it means that the antenna's directional gain is being compared to the hypothetical isotropic radiator that has zero gain in any particular direction. For example, if an antenna has a gain of 5 dBi, it means that the antenna has 5 decibels more directional gain than an isotropic radiator. This is a way to express the efficiency of the antenna in converting input power into radiated energy in a particular direction, relative to a theoretical antenna with no directionality. dBi is often used in antenna specifications and is a useful way to compare the performance of different antennas.
dBm is a unit of measurement used to express power levels in a system, specifically in the context of radio frequency (RF) and microwave circuits. It is a logarithmic unit that expresses the power ratio in decibels (dB) with respect to 1 milliwatt (mW). The formula to convert power in watts (W) to dBm is: dBm = 10 log10 (P / 1mW) where P is the power in watts. For example, if the power output of a transmitter is 1 watt, then the power in dBm is: dBm = 10 log10 (1 / 1mW) = 30 dBm. dBm is a useful way to express the power levels in a system because it allows for easy comparison of power levels without having to deal with large and cumbersome numbers. It is commonly used in RF and microwave engineering to express signal strength, receiver sensitivity, and other parameters related to the transmission and reception of radio signals.
EMC stands for Electromagnetic Compatibility. It refers to the ability of electronic devices and systems to operate properly in their intended electromagnetic environment without causing or suffering from electromagnetic interference (EMI). EMC involves designing electronic devices and systems in such a way that they do not generate excessive electromagnetic radiation, and are also able to resist and function properly in the presence of electromagnetic interference from other sources.
Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) is a wireless communication technique that enables simultaneous transmission and reception of signals by using separate frequency bands for uplink and downlink communication. In FDD, the uplink and downlink signals are transmitted on different frequency bands, with a guard band in between to avoid interference. This allows for full-duplex communication, which means that both parties can communicate simultaneously without having to take turns. FDD is commonly used in cellular networks, including 2G, 3G, 4G, and 5G, as well as in other wireless communication systems, such as Wi-Fi and Bluetooth.
The GSM 1800 band provides for a GSM uplink in the range 1710-1785 MHz, a GSM downlink in the range 1805-1880 MHz.
The GSM 1900 band provides for a GSM uplink in the range 1850-1910 MHz, a a GSM downlink in the range 1930-1990 MHz
The GSM 900 band provides for a GSM uplink in the range 890-915 MHz, a a GSM downlink in the range 935-960 MHz.
GSM AIR INTERFACE
GSM air interface refers to the wireless communication link between a mobile phone and a base station in a GSM network. It encompasses the radio frequency (RF) protocols and procedures used to establish and maintain voice and data connections between mobile devices and the network. The air interface operates in the UHF frequency band and uses a combination of time division multiple access (TDMA) and frequency division multiple access (FDMA) techniques to allow multiple users to share the same radio channel simultaneously. It is a crucial component of GSM technology that enables mobile communication services, such as voice calls, text messaging, and mobile internet access.
A GSM network consists of the mobile station, the base station system, the switching system, and the operation and support system. GSM Base Station System (BSS) The GSM base station system (BSS) provides the interface between the GSM mobile phone and other parts of the GSM network.
GSM provides two types of channel: traffic channels and signaling channels.
Handover refers to the process by which a GSM mobile phone's affiliation is transferred from one base station to another.
GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) security refers to the measures and protocols implemented to protect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of voice and data communications in GSM networks. GSM security is based on a number of security algorithms and mechanisms, including authentication, encryption, and key management. These measures ensure that only authorized users can access the network and that their communications are protected from eavesdropping, interception, and tampering. Authentication is achieved by verifying the identity of the user through a SIM card and a secret key stored on the SIM. Encryption is used to scramble the voice and data traffic, making it unintelligible to anyone who does not have the correct decryption key. Key management is the process of generating, distributing, and updating the encryption keys used to protect the communications. GSM security also includes measures to protect against attacks such as fraud, denial of service, and hacking. These measures include firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and access controls.
The International Mobile Station Equipment Identity or IMEI is a number, usually unique, to identify 3GPP (i.e., GSM, UMTS and LTE) and iDEN mobile phones, as well as some satellite phones. On most phones you can dial *#06# to see this number. The IMEI number is used by a GSM network to identify valid devices and is only used for identifying the device and has no permanent or semi-permanent relation to the subscriber. It is also used by IMEI/IMSI-Catchers / GSM Interceptors in order to identify your phone and performing call interception.
Location Area Code, unique number broadcast by a "base transceiver station" in GSM. A "location area" is a set of base stations that are grouped together to optimize signaling. Typically, tens or even hundreds of base stations share a single Base Station Controller (BSC) in GSM, or a Radio Network Controller (RNC) in UMTS, the intelligence behind the base stations. The BSC handles allocation of radio channels, receives measurements from the mobile phones, controls handovers from base station to base station.
LNA stands for Low Noise Amplifier, which is an electronic amplifier used to amplify weak signals while adding as little noise or distortion as possible.
LTE EPC (Evolved Packet Core) is a network architecture used in 4G LTE (Long-Term Evolution) networks. It is responsible for managing the flow of data packets between the LTE base station (known as the eNodeB) and the internet, as well as between different LTE base stations. The LTE EPC consists of several components, including the Serving Gateway (SGW), Packet Data Network Gateway (PGW), Mobility Management Entity (MME), and Policy and Charging Rules Function (PCRF). The SGW and PGW are responsible for routing data packets between the LTE base station and the internet, while the MME manages the mobility of users between different base stations. The PCRF is responsible for enforcing policy and charging rules for network usage. Overall, the LTE EPC provides the necessary infrastructure for delivering high-speed mobile data services, such as internet access, video streaming, and online gaming, to users of LTE-enabled devices.
LTE HSS (Home Subscriber Server) is a component of an LTE (Long-Term Evolution) network, which is responsible for storing and managing subscriber-related information, such as user profiles, authentication information, and service entitlements. The HSS is a central database that provides the core network with information about the subscribers who are allowed to access the network. It is used by the LTE core network to authenticate subscribers, authorize services, and manage subscriber mobility. The HSS also supports subscriber identity management, subscriber provisioning, and subscriber data management. It plays a critical role in ensuring the security and integrity of LTE networks and services.
Mobile Country Code (MCC), used in wireless telephone network station addressing.
MIMO stands for Multiple-Input Multiple-Output. It refers to a technology used in wireless communication systems that uses multiple antennas at both the transmitter and receiver to improve system performance. In a MIMO system, multiple antennas are used at both the transmitting and receiving ends of the communication link, allowing the system to transmit multiple streams of data simultaneously. The multiple antennas provide a diversity of paths for the signals to travel through, which helps to reduce the effects of fading, interference, and other types of signal degradation that can occur in wireless communication systems. MIMO technology is used in a variety of wireless communication systems, including Wi-Fi networks, cellular networks, and other types of wireless systems. It is especially useful in environments where there are a lot of obstacles, such as buildings or trees, which can block or scatter signals. By using multiple antennas, MIMO technology can help to improve the reliability and performance of wireless communication systems in these challenging environments.
A Mobile Network Code (MNC) is used in combination with a mobile country code (MCC) (also known as an "MCC / MNC tuple") to uniquely identify a mobile phone operator/carrier using the GSM/LTE, CDMA, iDEN, TETRA and UMTS public land mobile networks and some satellite mobile networks.
MSISDN is a number uniquely identifying a subscription in a GSM or a UMTS mobile network. Simply put, it is the telephone number to the SIM card in a mobile/cellular phone. This abbreviation has several interpretations, the most common one being "Mobile Subscriber Integrated Services Digital Network-Number".
RCIED stands for "Radio-Controlled Improvised Explosive Device." It is a type of explosive device that can be remotely activated through radio signals. These devices are often used as weapons by insurgents, terrorists, or other groups engaged in guerrilla warfare. They can be concealed in vehicles, buildings, or other locations and triggered by remote control, making them a serious threat to military forces and civilians alike. RCIEDs are designed to be highly portable and can be made using simple, readily available materials, making them a popular choice for attackers who want to cause maximum damage with minimal resources. Countermeasures against RCIEDs include electronic jamming systems and physical barriers to protect against blast damage.
The receive sensitivity of an electronic device, such as a radio or a cell phone, refers to the minimum power level of an incoming signal that the device can detect and process. In other words, it measures the ability of the device to pick up weak signals from the surrounding environment. A device with high receive sensitivity can detect weaker signals than a device with lower sensitivity. Receive sensitivity is usually measured in decibels referenced to one milliwatt (dBm).
Software Defined Radio (SDR) refers to a radio communication system where the hardware components that typically make up a radio (such as mixers, filters, amplifiers, modulators, and demodulators) are replaced or augmented by software. In an SDR, a significant portion of the radio functionality is implemented in software that runs on a general-purpose computer or embedded processor, which allows for flexible and dynamic control of the radio's behavior. SDR technology enables radios to be easily reconfigured and updated to support new communication standards or features, without requiring any hardware modifications.
Time Division Duplex. TDD uses a single frequency band for both transmit and receive. Then it shares that band by assigning alternating time slots to transmit and receive operations. The information to be transmittedwhether its voice, video, or computer datais in serial binary format. Each time slot may be 1 byte long or could be a frame of multiple bytes. LTE TDD (Time Division Duplex) is a wireless communication technology used in cellular networks that allows for transmission and reception of signals over the same frequency band, but at different times. In TDD, the uplink and downlink transmissions share the same frequency band, and are separated in time through the use of time slots. This enables more efficient use of the available spectrum, as well as increased flexibility in terms of the allocation of uplink and downlink resources. LTE TDD is commonly used in regions where frequency bands are scarce or expensive, and is often used in combination with FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) to provide greater network capacity and coverage.
Tactical Data Relay (TDDR) is used to extend communication distance between multiple groups of users and can be mounted on handheld, vehicle, or aerial platforms. They have an effective range that can be extended up to 50-60 kilometers. To ensure secure transmission, all data transmitted through TDDRs are encrypted using AES-256 encryption. This compact solution is particularly well-suited for reconnaissance operations, where the ability to transmit data over an extended range is critical.
The Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) is the identity that is most commonly sent between the mobile and the network. TMSI is randomly assigned by the VLR to every mobile in the area, the moment it is switched on. The number is local to a location area, and so it has to be updated each time the mobile moves to a new geographical area. The network can also change the TMSI of the mobile at any time. And it normally does so, in order to avoid the subscriber from being identified, and tracked by eavesdroppers on the radio interface. This makes it difficult to trace which mobile is which, except briefly, when the mobile is just switched on, or when the data in the mobile becomes invalid for one reason or another. At that point, the global "international mobile subscriber identity" (IMSI) must be sent to the network. The IMSI is sent as rarely as possible, to avoid it being identified and tracked
UMTS UPLINK SCRAMBLING CODE
UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) UL (Uplink) Scrambling Code is a unique code used in the UMTS mobile communication system to protect the privacy and integrity of the data transmitted from the user equipment (UE) to the NodeB (base station). The UMTS UL Scrambling Code is used to scramble the data transmitted by the UE before it is sent to the NodeB. This code is used along with a spreading code to spread the user data over a wide frequency band, making it more difficult for unauthorized parties to intercept and decipher the information. The UL Scrambling Code is assigned by the NodeB to the UE during the initial access procedure and is used for the duration of the communication session. The code is unique to each UE and is changed periodically to ensure the security of the communication.